Science Center

What Research Says About WW

Leading researchers have studied the WW program for more than four decades. Here’s what they have to say.

Since its foundation in 1963, WW has always been rooted in science. Our dedicated Science team uses credible, established research to inform our consistently-evolving program, and works closely with the scientific community to ensure we meet the highest standards.

Over the past four decades, more than 130 studies (including 35 gold standard randomized trials) have examined the efficacy and impact of the WW program. The body evidence is clear: WW is an efficacious, scalable, and cost-effective program with sustained weight loss and wellness outcomes.

Below, find a comprehensive list of published, peer-reviewed scientific articles evaluating WW.

Published Studies Assessing WW’s Impact

This compendium is regularly updated and may be especially helpful for organizations, hospital systems, and health plans that are looking for proven wellbeing solutions for employees, members, and/or patients.



Young J, Phelan S, Alarcon N, Roake J, Rethorst CD, Foster GD. Factors associated with food choice among long‐term weight loss maintainers. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 2021 Dec 30:1-10.

Crochiere RJ, Abber SR, Taylor LC, Sala M, Schumacher LM, Goldstein SP, Forman EM. Momentary predictors of dietary lapse from a mobile health weight loss intervention. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2021 Nov 22:1-7.

Jones RA, Mueller J, Sharp SJ, Vincent A, Duschinsky R, Griffin SJ, Ahern AL. The impact of participant mental health on attendance and engagement in a trial of behavioural weight management programmes: secondary analysis of the WRAP randomised controlled trial. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2021 Nov 7.

Tocque K, Kennedy L. Can Weight Watchers (WW) Help Address Maternal Obesity? An Audit of Weight Change in Women of Childbearing Age and Mothers-To-Be, Referred into a Commercial Slimming Programme. Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2021 Nov 5:1-1.

Puhl RM, Lessard LM, Pearl RL, Grupski A, Foster GD. Policies to address weight discrimination and bullying: Perspectives of adults engaged in weight management from six nations. Obesity. 2021 Oct 5.

Morris E, Jebb SA, Oke J, Nickless A, Ahern A, Boyland E, Caterson ID, Halford J, Hauner H, Aveyard P. Effect of weight loss on cardiometabolic risk: observational analysis of two randomised controlled trials of community weight-loss programs. British Journal of General Practice. 2021 April 1;71(705):e312-9.

Hales SB, Schulte EM, Turner TF, Malcolm R, Wojtanowski AC, Rethorst C, Pinto AM, Foster GD, O’Neil PM. Pilot evaluation of a personalized commercial program on weight loss, health outcomes, and quality of life. Translational Behavioral Medicine. 2021 Aug 16.

Bullard T, Medcalf A, Rethorst C, Foster GD. Impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic on initial weight loss in a digital weight management program: A natural experiment. Obesity. 2021 May 19.

Roake J, Phelan S, Alarcon N, Keadle SK, Rethorst CD, Foster GD. Sitting time, type, and context among long-term weight-loss maintainers. Obesity. 2021 May 24;29(6):1067-1073.

Puhl RM, Lessard LM, Himmelstein MS, Foster GD. The roles of experienced and internalized weight stigma in healthcare experiences: Perspectives of adults engaged in weight management across six countries. PloS One. 2021 June 1;16(6):e0251566.

Puhl RM, Lessard LM, Pearl RL, Himmelstein MS, Foster GD. International comparisons of weight stigma: Addressing a void in the field. International Journal of Obesity. 2021 May 6; 1-10.

Lessard LM, Puhl RM, Himmelstein MS, Pearl RL, Foster GD. Eating and exercise-related correlates of weight stigma: A multinational investigation. Obesity. 2021 May 24;29(6):966-970.

Agrawal S, Wojtanowski AC, Tringali L, Foster GD, Finkelstein EA. Financial implications of New York City’s weight management initiative. PloS one. 2021 Feb 11;16(2):e0246621.

Pearl RL, Puhl RM, Lessard LM, Himmelstein MS, Foster GD. Prevalence and correlates of weight bias internalization in weight management: A multinational study. SSM-Population Health. 2021 Mar 1;13:100755.


Himmelstein MS, Puhl RM, Pearl RL, Pinto AM, Foster GD. Coping with weight stigma among adults in a commercial weight management sample. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2020 Oct;27:576-90.

Ahern AL, Griffin SJ, Wheeler GM, Sharp SJ, Aveyard P, Boyland EJ, Halford JC, Jebb SA. The effect of referral to an open‐group behavioural weight‐management programme on the relative risk of normoglycaemia, non‐diabetic hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes: Secondary analysis of the WRAP trial. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2020 Nov;22(11):2069-76.

Thomas JG, Goldstein CM, Bond DS, Hadley W, Tuerk PW. Web‐based virtual reality to enhance behavioural skills training and weight loss in a commercial online weight management programme: The Experience Success randomized trial. Obesity Science & Practice. 2020.

Rogers RJ, Kovacs SJ, Collins KA, Raybuck S, Collins AM, Marcin ML, Foster GD, Jakicic JM. Observations of a Commercial Weight Loss Program on Physical Function and Selected CVD Risk Factors. Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine. 2020 Oct 1;5(12):e000137.

Gudzune KA, Clark JM. Role of Commercial Weight-loss Programs in Medical Management of Obesity. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics. 2020 June;49(2):275-287.

Pearl RL, Puhl RM, Himmelstein MS, Pinto AM, Foster GD. Weight Stigma and Weight-Related Health: Associations of Self-Report Measures Among Adults in Weight Management. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2020.

Phelan S, Halfman T, Pinto AM, Foster GD. Behavioral and Psychological Strategies of Long‐Term Weight Loss Maintainers in a Widely Available Weight Management Program. Obesity. 2020 Feb;28(2):421-8.

Pudney EV, Himmelstein MS, Puhl RM, Foster GD. Distressed or not distressed? A mixed methods examination of reactions to weight stigma and implications for emotional wellbeing and internalized weight bias. Social Science & Medicine. 2020 Mar 1;249:112854.

Schulte EM, Tuerk PW, Wadden TA, Garvey WT, Weiss D, Hermayer KL, Aronne LJ, Becker LE, Fujioka K, Miller-Kovach K, Kushner RF. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger in a commercial weight management program adapted for individuals with type 2 diabetes. International Journal of Obesity. 2020 Jan 16:1-9.

Tate DF, Quesnel DA, Lutes L, Hatley KE, Nezami BT, Wojtanowski AC, Pinto AM, Power J, Diamond M, Polzien K, Foster G. Examination of a partial dietary self‐monitoring approach for behavioral weight management. Obesity Science & Practice. 2020; 1-12.



Finkelstein EA, Verghese NR. Incremental cost‐effectiveness of evidence‐based non‐surgical weight loss strategies. Clinical obesity. 2019 Apr;9(2):e12294.

Forman EM, Goldstein SP, Crochiere RJ, Butryn ML, Juarascio AS, Zhang F, Foster GD. Randomized controlled trial of OnTrack, a just-in-time adaptive intervention designed to enhance weight loss. Translational behavioral medicine. 2019 Dec;9(6):989-1001.

Johnston CA, Moreno JP, Hernandez DC, Link BA, Chen TA, Wojtanowski AC, Foster GD, Foreyt JP. Levels of adherence needed to achieve significant weight loss. International Journal of Obesity. 2019 Jan;43(1):125-31.

Newlands RS, Ntessalen M, Clark J, Fielding S, Hoddinott P, Heys SD, McNeill G, Craig LC. Pilot randomised controlled trial of Weight Watchers® referral with or without dietitian-led group support for weight loss in women treated for breast cancer: the BRIGHT (BReast cancer weIGHT loss) trial. Pilot and feasibility studies. 2019 Dec 1;5(1):24.

Pascual RW, Phelan S, La Frano MR, Pilolla KD, Griffiths Z, Foster GD. Diet Quality and Micronutrient Intake among Long-Term Weight Loss Maintainers. Nutrients. 2019 Dec;11(12):3046.

Pearl RL, Himmelstein MS, Puhl RM, Wadden TA, Wojtanowski AC, Foster GD. Weight bias internalization in a commercial weight management sample: prevalence and correlates. Obesity Science & Practice. 2019 Aug;5(4):342-53.

Puhl RM, Himmelstein MS, Pearl RL, Wojtanowski AC, Foster GD. Weight Stigma Among Sexual Minority Adults: Findings from a Matched Sample of Adults Engaged in Weight Management. Obesity. 2019 Nov;27(11):1906-15.


Ambrosini GL, Solis-Trapala I, Ahern AL, Fuller NR, Holzapfel C, Hauner H, Caterson ID, Jebb SA. Greater improvements in diet quality among overweight participants following a group-based commercial weight loss programme than those receiving support to lose weight in primary care. Nutrition Journal. 2018; 17:64.

Cornelius T, Gettens K, Lenz E, Wojtanowski AC, Foster GD, Gorin AA. How prescriptive support affects weight loss in weight-loss intervention participants and their untreated spouses. Health Psychol. 2018: 775-781.

Gorin AA, Lenz EM, Cornelius T, Huedo-Medina T, Wojtanowski AM, & Foster GD. Randomized controlled trial examining the ripple effect of a nationally available weight management program on untreated spouses. Obesity. 2018; 26:499-504.

Lymer S, Schofield D, Cunich M, Lee CM, Fuller N, Caterson I, Colagiuri S. The population cost‐effectiveness of Weight Watchers with general practitioner referral compared with standard care. Obesity. 2018 Aug;26(8):1261-9.

Palmer KNB, Saha C, Phillips EO, Krishnan A, Foster GD, Finkelstein E, Wojtanowski AC, Marrero DG. The two-year outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a commercial weight loss program for the prevention of type 2 diabetes among people with prediabetes. Endocrinology, Diabetes & Obesity. 2018; 1:5.

Yancy WS, Shaw PA, Wesby L, Hilbert V, Yang L, Zhu J, Troxel A, Huffman D, Foster GD, Wojtanowski AC, Volpp KG. Financial incentive strategies for maintenance of weight loss: Results from an internet-based randomized controlled trial. Nutrition and Diabetes. 2018; 8:33.


Ahern AL, Wheeler GM, Aveyard P, et al. Extended and standard duration weight-loss programme referrals for adults in primary care (WRAP): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2017;389(10085):2214-2225.

Baetge C, Earnest CP, Lockard B, et al. Efficacy of a randomized trial examining commercial weight loss programs and exercise on metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese women. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017;42(2):216-227.

Fuller NR, Lau NS, Markovic TP, Caterson ID. Investigating general medication prescription by general practitioners during a 12‐month randomized controlled weight loss trial. Clin Obes. 2017;7(4):222-230.

Holland-Carter L, Tuerk PW, Wadden TA, et al. Impact on psychosocial outcomes of a nationally available weight management program tailored for individuals with type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized controlled trial. J Diabetes Complications. 2017;31(5):891-897.

Piper C, Marossy A, Griffiths Z, Adegboye A. Evaluation of a type 2 diabetes prevention program using a commercial weight management provider for non-diabetic hyperglycemic patients referred by primary care in the UK. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2017;5(1):e000418.

Shaw PA, Yancy WS, Wesby L, et al. The design and conduct of Keep It Off: An online randomized trial of financial incentives for weight-loss maintenance. Clin Trials. 2017;14(1):29-36

Thomas JG, Raynor HA, Bond DS, et al. Weight loss in Weight Watchers Online with and without an activity tracking device compared to control: A randomized trial. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2017;25(6):1014-1021.

Thomas JG, Raynor HA, Bond DS, et al. Weight loss and frequency of body-weight self-monitoring in an online commercial weight management program with and without a cellular-connected ‘smart’ scale: a randomized pilot study. Obesity Sci Pract. 2017;3(4):365-372.


Ahern AL, Aveyard P, Boyland EJ, Halford JC, Jebb SA. Inequalities in the uptake of weight management interventions in a pragmatic trial: an observational study in primary care. Br J Gen Pract. 2016;66(645):e258-e263.

Birnie K, Thomas L, Fleming C, et al. An evaluation of a multi-component adult weight management on referral intervention in a community setting. BMC Res Notes. 2016;9:104.

Chaudhry ZW, Doshi RS, Mehta AK, et al. A systematic review of commercial weight loss programmes’ effect on glycemic outcomes among overweight and obese adults with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obes Rev. 2016;17(8):758-769.

Fink JT, Smith DR, Singh M, Ihrke DM, Cisler RA. Obese employee participation patterns in a wellness program. Popul Health Manag. 2016;19(2):132-5.

John LK, Troxel AB, Yancy WS, et al. The effect of cost sharing on an employee weight loss program: A randomized trial. American J Health Promot. 2016;32(1):170-176

Marrero DG, Palmer KN, Phillips EO, Miller-Kovach K, Foster GD, Saha CK. Comparison of commercial and self-initiated weight loss programs in people with prediabetes: A randomized control trial. Am J Public Health. 2016;106(5):949-956.

Mitchell NS, Prochazka AV, Glasgow RE. Time to RE-AIM: Why community weight loss programs should be included in academic obesity research. Prev Chronic Dis. 2016;13(E37):1-7.

O’Neil PM, Miller-Kovach K, Tuerk PW, et al. Randomized controlled trial of a nationally available weight control program tailored for adults with type 2 diabetes. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24(11):2269-2277.

Vakil RM, Doshi RS, Mehta AK, et al. Direct comparisons of commercial weight-loss programs on weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(June):460.

Verhaeghe N, De Greve O, Annemans L. The potential health and economic effect of a body mass index decrease in the overweight and obese population in Belgium. Public Health. 2016;134 (May):26-33.

Wang Y, Willis E. Examining theory-based behavior-change constructs, social interaction, and sociability features of the Weight Watchers’ online community. Health Educ Behav. 2016;43(6):656-664.

Wang Y, Willis E. Supporting self-efficacy through interactive discussion in online communities of weight loss. J Health Psychol. 2016;first published June 22, 2016.

Yang Z, Yu Z, Jiang Y, et al. Evaluation of a community-based behavioral weight loss program in Chinese adults: A randomized controlled trial. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24(7):1464-70.


Gudzune KA, Doshi RS, Mehta AK, et al. Efficacy of commercial weight-loss programs: An updated systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2015;162(7):501–12.

Minneboo M, Peters RJ, Miller-Kovach K, Lemmens J, Bucx JJ. Referral to a commercial weight management program in patients with coronary heart disease: A pilot study in the Netherlands. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2015;35(4):268-271.


Atallah R, Filion KB, Wakil SM, et al. Long-term effects of 4 popular diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2014;7(6):815-27.

Barraj LM, Murphy MM, Heshka S, Katz DL. Greater weight loss among men participating in a commercial weight loss program: A pooled analysis of 2 randomized controlled trials. Nutr Res. 2014;34(2): 174-177.

Finkelstein EA, Kruger E. Meta- and cost-effectiveness analysis of commercial weight loss strategies. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(9):1942-51.

Fuller NR, Williams K, Shrestha R, et al. Changes in physical activity during a weight loss intervention and follow‐up: A randomized controlled trial. Clin Obes. 2014;4(3):127-35.

Johnston BC, Kanters S, Bandayrel K, et al. Comparison of weight loss among named diet programs in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2014;312(9):923-33.

Lewis L, Taylor M, Broom J, Johnston KL. The cost-effectiveness of the LighterLife weight management programme as an intervention for obesity in England. Clin Obes. 2014;4(3):180-8.

Madigan CD, Daley AJ, Lewis AL, Jolly K, Aveyard P. Which weight-loss programmes are as effective as Weight Watchers®?: Non-inferiority analysis. Br J Gen Pract. 2014;64(620):e128-36.

Millward DJ, Truby H, Fox KR, Livingstone MB, Macdonald IA, Tothill P. Sex differences in the composition of weight gain and loss in overweight and obese adults. Br J Nutr. 2014;111(5):933-43.

Milsom VA, Malcolm RJ, Johnson GC, et al. Changes in cardiovascular risk factors with participation in a 12-week weight loss trial using a commercial format. Eat Behav. 2014;15(1):68-71.


Ahern AL, Boyland EJ, Jebb S A, Cohn SR. Participants’ explanatory model of being overweight and their experiences of 2 weight loss interventions. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11(3): 251-257.

Bleich SN, Herring BJ. Medicaid coverage for weight loss counseling may make ‘cents’. J Gen Intern Med. 2013;28(1):3-5.

Bouhaidar CM, Deshazo JP, Puri P, Gray P, Robins JLW,Salyer J. Text messaging as adjunct to community-based weight management program. Comput Inform Nurs. 2013;31(10):469-76.

Fuller NR, Colagiuri S, Schofield D, Olson AD, Shrestha R, Holzapfel C, and Caterson ID. A within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis of primary care referral to a commercial provider for weight loss treatment, relative to standard care—an international randomised controlled trial. Int J Obesity. 2013;37(6):828-834.

Johnston CA, Rost S, Miller-Kovach K, Moreno JP, Foreyt JP. A randomized controlled trial of a community-based behavioral counseling program. Am J Med. 2013;126(12): 1143-e19.

Mitchell NS, Ellison MC, Hill JO, Tsai AG. Evaluation of the effectiveness of making Weight Watchers available to Tennessee Medicaid (TennCare) recipients. J Gen Intern Med. 2013;28(1):12-17.

Mitchell NS, Suh CA, Stroebele N, Hill JO, Tsai AG. Weight change in pediatric TennCare recipients referred to a commercial weight loss program. Acad Pediatr. 2013;13(2):152–158.

Pinto AM, Fava JL, Hoffman DA, Wing RR. Combining behavioral weight loss treatment and a commercial program: a randomized clinical trial. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21(4):673-680.

Walker CG, Holzapfe, C, Loos RJ, et al. Genetic predisposition to an adverse lipid profile limits the improvement in total cholesterol in response to weight loss. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21(12):2589-2595.


Dixon KJ, Shcherba S, and Kipping RR. Weight loss from three commercial providers of NHS primary care slimming on referral in North Somerset: Service evaluation. J Public Health (Oxf). 2012;34(4):555-561.

Longin R, Grasse M, Aspalter R, Waldherr K. Effectiveness of the online weight reduction program KiloCoach™ and comparison with other evaluated commercial direct intervention and online programs. Obes Facts. 2012;5(3):372-83.

Melanson KJ, Summers A, Nguyen V, et al. Body composition, dietary composition, and components of metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese adults after a 12-week trial on dietary treatments focused on portion control, energy density, or glycemic index. Nutr J. 2012;11(1):57.

O'Neil PM, Theim KR, Boeka A, Johnson G, Miller-Kovach K. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program. Eat Behav. 2012;13(4):354-360.

Tsai AG, Raube E, Conrad J, Bessesen DH, Rozwadowski JM. A pilot randomized trial comparing a commercial weight loss program with a clinic-based intervention for weight loss. J Prim Care Community Health. 2012;3(4):251-5.

Ahern AL, Olson AD, Aston LM, Jebb SA. Weight Watchers on prescription: An observational study of weight change among adults referred to Weight Watchers by the NHS. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(1):434.


Jebb SA, Ahern AL, Olson AD, et al. Primary care referral to a commercial provider for weight loss treatment versus standard care: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;378(9801):1485–92.

Jolly K, Lewis A, Beach J, et al. Comparison of range of commercial or primary care led weight reduction programmes with minimal intervention control for weight loss in obesity: Lighten Up randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2011;343:d6500.

Köhler B, Andreén I. Body weight maintenance and levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in a group of Swedish women seven years after completion of a Weight Watchers' diet. Swedish Dent J. 2011;35(3):101-109.

Lloyd A, Khan R. Evaluation of Healthy Choices: a commercial weight loss programme commissioned by the NHS. Perspect Public Health. 2011;131(4):177–83.


Cobiac L, Vos T, Veerman L. Cost-effectiveness of Weight Watchers and the Lighten Up to a Healthy Lifestyle program. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2010;34(3):240-7.

de A Mariano MH, Kolotkin RL, Petribú K, et al. Psychometric evaluation of a Brazilian version of the impact of weight on quality of life (IWQOL-Lite) instrument. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2010;18(1):58-66.

Du H, Feskens E. Dietary determinants of obesity. Acta Cardiol. 2010;65(4):377-86.

Jolly K, Daley A, Adab P, et al. A randomised controlled trial to compare a range of commercial or primary care led weight reduction programmes with a minimal intervention control for weight loss in obesity: the Lighten Up trial. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:439.

Krist AH, Woolf SH, Johnson RE, et al. Patient costs as a barrier to intensive health behavior counseling. Am J Prev Med. 2010;38(3):344-348.

Mata J, Todd PM, Lippke S. When weight management lasts. Lower perceived rule complexity increases adherence. Appetite. 2010;54(1):37-43.

Melanson KJ, Lowndes J. Type 2 diabetes risk reduction in overweight and obese adults through multidisciplinary group sessions: effects of meeting attendance. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 2010;4(3):275-281.

Wilson DB, Johnson RE, Jones RM, Krist AH, Woolf SH, Flores SK. Patient weight counseling choices and outcomes following a primary care and community collaborative intervention. Patient Educ Couns. 2010;79(3):338-343.



Brown T, Avenell A, Edmunds LD, et al. Systematic review of long-term lifestyle interventions to prevent weight gain and morbidity in adults. Obes Rev. 2009;10(6):627-38.

Djuric Z, Mirasolo J, Kimbrough L, et al. A pilot trial of spirituality counseling for weight loss maintenance in African American breast cancer survivors. J Natl Med Assoc. 2009;101(6):552-564.

Morgan LM, Griffin BA, Millward DJ, et al. Comparison of the effects of four commercially available weight-loss programmes on lipid-based cardiovascular risk factors. Public Health Nutr. 2009;12:799-807.


Elfhag K, Finer N, Rossner S. Who will lose weight on sibutramine and orlistat? Psychological correlates for treatment success. Diabetes Obes Metab.2008;10:498–505.

Kemps E, Tiggemann M, Christianson R. Concurrent visuo-spatial processing reduces food cravings in prescribed weight-loss dieters. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2008; 39(2):177-86.

Krist AH, Woolf SH, Frazier CO, et al. An electronic linkage system for health behavior counseling: Effect on delivery of the 5A's. Am J Prev Med. 2008;35(Suppl 5):S350-S358.

Lowe MR, Kral, TVE, Miller-Kovach K. Weight-loss maintenance 1, 2 and 5 years after successful completion of a weight-loss programme. Br J Nutr. 2008;99(04):925-930.

Truby H, Hiscutt R, Herriot AM, et al. Commercial weight loss diets meet nutrient requirements in free living adults over 8 weeks: a randomised controlled weight loss trial. Nutr J. 2008;7:25.


Bellisle F, Dalix AM, De Assis MA, et al. Motivational effects of 12-week moderately restrictive diets with or without special attention to the Glycaemic Index of foods. Br J Nutr. 2007;97(4):790-798.

Ma Y, Pagoto SL, Griffith JA, et al. A dietary quality comparison of popular weight-loss plans. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107(10):1786-91.


Truby H, Baic S, Delooy A, et al. Randomised Controlled trial of four commercial weight loss programmes in the UK: Initial findings from the BBC “diet trials’. BMJ. 2006;332(7553):1309-1314.


Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, Selker HP, Schaefer EJ. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2005;293(1):43-53.

Frisard MI, Greenway FL, Delany JP. Comparison of methods to assess body composition changes during a period of weight loss. Obes Res. 2005;13(5):845-854

Moyad MA. Fad diets and obesity--Part IV: Low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat diets. Urol Nurs. 2005;25(1):67-70.

Tsai AG, Wadden TA. Systematic review: An evaluation of major commercial weight loss rrograms in the United States. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142(1):56-66.


Hamilton M, Greenway F. Evaluating commercial weight loss programmes: an evolution in outcomes research. Obes Rev. 2004;5(4):217-232.

Jen KL, Djuric Z, DiLaura NM, et al. Improvement of metabolism among obese breast cancer survivors in differing weight loss regimens. Obes Res. 2004;12(2):306-12.

Witherspoon B, Rosenzweig M. Industry-sponsored weight loss programs: description, cost, and effectiveness. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2004;16(5):198-205.


Heshka S, Anderson JW, Atkinson RL, et al. Weight loss with self-help compared with a structured commercial program. JAMA. 2003;289(14):1792-1798.


Borges MB, Jorge MR, Morgan CM, Da Silveira DX, Custódio O. Binge-eating disorder in Brazilian women on a weight-loss program. Obes Res. 2002;10(11):1127-34.

Djuric Z, DiLaura NM, Jenkins I, et al. Combining weight‐loss counseling with the weight watchers plan for obese breast cancer survivors. Obes Res. 2002;10(7):657-65.


Ball MP, Coons VB, Buchanan RW. A program for treating olanzapine-related weight gain. Psychiatr Serv. 2001;52(7):967–969.

Lowe MR, Miller-Kovach K, Phelan S. Weight-loss maintenance in overweight individuals one to five years following successful completion of a commercial weight loss program. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25(3):325-331.


Heshka S, Greenway F, Anderson JW, et al. Self-help weight loss versus a structured commercial program after 26 weeks: a randomized controlled study. Am J Med. 2000;109(4):282-287.

Thompson RL, Thomas DE. A cross-sectional survey of the opinions on weight loss treatments of adult obese patients attending a dietetic clinic. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24(2):164-70.



Lowe MR, Miller-Kovach K, Frye N, Phelan S. An initial evaluation of a commercial weight loss program: Short-term effects on weight, eating behavior, and mood. Obes Res. 1999;7(1):51-59.

Miller-Kovach K, Hermann M, Winick M. The psychological ramifications of weight management. J Women’s Health Gend Based Med. 1999;8(4):477-482.

Podar I, Hannus A, Allik J. Personality and affectivity characteristics associated with eating disorders: a comparison of eating disordered, weight-preoccupied, and normal samples. J Pers Assess. 1999;73(1):133-47.


Rippe JM, Price JM, Hess SA, et al. Improved psychological well-being, quality of life, and health practices in moderately overweight women participating in a 12-week structured weight loss program. Obes Res. 1998;6(3):208-218.

Weiner S. The addiction of overeating: self-help groups as treatment models. J Clin Psychol. 1998;54(2):163-7.


Christakis G, Miller-Kovach K. Maintenance of weight goal among Weight Watchers lifetime members. Nutrition Today. 1996;31(1):29-31.


Andreén I, Köhler B. Effects of Weight Watchers' diet on salivary secretion rate, buffer effect and numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. Scand J Dent Res. 1992;100(2): 93-7.


Price JH, Desmond SM, Ruppert ES, Stelzer CM. Pediatricians' perceptions and practices regarding childhood obesity. Am J Prev Med. 1989;5(2):95-103.


Hall A, Leibrich J, Walkey FH, Welch G. Investigation of 'weight pathology' of 58 mothers of anorexia nervosa patients and 204 mothers of schoolgirls. Psychol Med. 1986;16(01):71-76.


Volkmar FR, Stunkard AJ, Woolston J, Bailey RA. High attrition rates in commercial weight reduction programs. Arch Intern Med. 1981;141(4):426-8.


Stuart RB, Guire K. Some correlates of the maintenance of weight lost through behavior modification. Int J Obes. 1978;2(2):225-235.

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