What are the health effects of too much salt?
Salt contains sodium, a mineral that increases the risk of high blood pressure if you eat too much of it. And high blood pressure is a major risk factor for stroke, heart disease and kidney disease. Plus, a ‘salty diet’ increases the amount of calcium your body excretes, which can bump up your risk of osteoporosis. As a result Australia’s National Health and Medical Research Council recommends sticking to less than 5g of salt—which is 2000mg of sodium—per day. That’s slightly less than a teaspoon of salt in total. However, if you’ve already got high blood pressure, try to reduce your salt intake to 4g (1600mg of sodium) a day.
How much salt do we actually need?
Once upon a time, salt was so precious it was used as currency, utilised in all sorts of superstitious practices and even helped to ignite revolutions due to its scarcity. These days, it’s such a staple that we not only take salt for granted, we’re eating a lot of it, fuelled partly by the fact that when salty foods are regularly on the menu, our tastebuds develop a preference for it. And, while the human body only needs around 1g of salt per day to function properly, Australians and New Zealanders eat, on average, about 9g of salt per day.
What’s the difference between salt and sodium?
Salt is a mineral made up of sodium and chloride. Sodium is a chemical element that occurs in salt and many foods. Our body needs a small amount of sodium to help regulate fluid levels, but too much may cause high blood pressure and can lead to health problems.
What is iodised salt?
Iodine helps the thyroid gland and the hormones that regulate our metabolism to work properly. You can buy iodised table salt or sea salt, which has had iodine added to it. Most bread in Australia and New Zealand (except organic and bread mixes) is required by law to use iodised instead of non-iodised salt to ensure most adults and children consume enough iodine. Seafood and dairy products are also good sources.
Himalayan salt vs sea salt?
That expensive pink Himalayan sea salt looks beautiful, but is it any better for you than table salt? Sea salt is produced by evaporating water from the ocean or inland lakes and is less processed than table salt, which undergoes a purification process to make it finer. Sea salt may be more ‘natural’ than table salt, but it’s no healthier and contains exactly the same amount of sodium.
Sea salt also often contains trace minerals from its water source that give it colour and flavour, such as the pink Himalayan and Murray River salts. These are often touted as having health benefits but their mineral content is too small to have any nutritional value. The bottom line: Gourmet salts add flavour and texture, but they’re no better than table salt.
Should I cut back on salt?
Yes and no. The salt you physically add to your food only accounts for about a quarter of your daily sodium intake. In most people’s diets, the other 75 per cent comes from processed foods—and not just salty ones like potato chips and bacon, but also processed foods that might not taste super salty, like bread, cereals, biscuits and cooking sauces. In fact, sometimes it’s not even ‘food’ you need to think about. A 2018 Australian report found that, on average, just one tablespoon of soy sauce contains 61 per cent of the recommended maximum daily sodium intake. And those tiny fish-shaped soy sauce bottles you get with your sushi? Each one contains nearly 10 per cent of a day’s maximum daily sodium intake.
4 ways to cut back on salt
1. Focus on fresh, unprocessed foods
The majority of our salt intake comes from processed and packaged foods, so limit these and eat as much fresh fruit and vegies as possible. Also, aim to keep fast-food and takeaways options for occasional meals.
2. Pick low-sodium options
When you buy processed or canned foods, check nutrition information panels and go for low-sodium options, with less than 120mg per 100g. Try to avoid foods with 600mg of sodium or more per 100g.
3. Check labels
If you do want to start brand swapping, or to check up on a packaged food that doesn’t taste salty (because foods can be surprisingly high in sodium even if they aren’t particularly ‘salty’), check out the nutrition information panel. Less than 400mg of sodium per 100g is considered to be a moderate amount, while less than 120mg of sodium per 100g is considered low. Looking for products that have the words ‘no added salt’ or ‘reduced salt’ on the label is a good strategy, too.
4. Cut back on 'table salt'
It might only account for 25 per cent of your salt intake, but reducing how much salt you add during cooking and when you’re serving a meal still adds up. No need to go cold turkey, either—slowly reduce your intake over a few weeks. That’ll give your taste buds time to adjust to the lower level of salt.
5. Add flavour
As you gradually reduce the amount of salt in your diet, by consuming reduced-salt ingredients and adding less salt as a seasoning, use ‘salt substitutes’ so you’re not missing out on flavour. These include garlic, fresh or dried herbs and spices—including chilli and pepper—as well as lemon or lime juice.
Salt values in popular foods:
2 slices (70g) wholegrain bread = 332mg sodium
1 small bowl (40g) cornflakes = 344mg sodium
1 medium (45g) white crumpet = 451mg sodium
1 tbs soy sauce = 1380mg sodium
1 tbs fish sauce = 1949mg Sodium